Background: Data on epidemiology of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) are limited. In this study, we assess the prevalence of CVD in patients with ADPKD and evaluate the association between these two entities.

Methods: Using the national inpatient sample database, we identified 71,531 hospitalizations among adults aged ≥18 years with ADPKD, from 2006-2014. The prevalence of CVD in the study population was 42.6%. The most common CVD were ischemic heart diseases (19.3%), arrhythmias (14.2%), and heart failure (13.1%). The prevalence of CVD increased with the severity of renal dysfunction (RD).

Results: We found an increase in hospitalizations of patients with ADPKD and CVD over the years (p trend <0.01), irrespective of the degree of RD. CVD was the greatest independent predictor of mortality in these patients (OR: 3.23; 95%CI 2.38-4.38 [p<0.001]). In a propensity matched model of hospitalizations of patients with CKD with and without ADPKD, there was a significant increase in the prevalence of atrial firbrillation/flutter (AF), pulmonary hypertension (PHN), non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM), and hemorrhagic stroke among patients with ADPKD when compared to patients with similar degree of RD without ADPKD.

Conclusions: The prevalence of CVD is high among patients with ADPKD, and the most important risk factor associated with CVD is severity of RD. We found an increase in the trend of hospitalizations of patients with ADPKD associated with increased risk of AF, PHN, NICM, and hemorrhagic stroke. History of CVD is the strongest predictor of mortality among patients with ADPKD.

IMAGE 1: CVD prevalence and CKD Stages

IMAGE 2: Clinical Outcomes of Hospitalizations with and without ADPKD Stratified by Age after Applying a 1:1 Propensity Match